Puf mantar─▒

Puf mantar─▒

Puf mantar─▒
Lycoperdon perlatum – Puffball Mushroom – Puf Mantar─▒ – At osuru─ču mantar─▒
Halk aras─▒nda Puf Mantar─▒ veya amiyane tabirle Osuruk Mantar─▒ olarak da bilinir. Yeti┼čme d├Âneminde yani taze iken beyaz dolgun, i├žli, olduk├ža etli bir yap─▒ya sahiptir. Birka├ž g├╝n sonra eskimeye ba┼člad─▒─č─▒nda ├Ânce koyu bir renk almaya ba┼člar ve iyice kahverengiye ├žalan bir renk de─či┼čikli─čine u─črar. S─▒k─▒┼čt─▒r─▒ld─▒─č─▒nda ya da ├╝zerine bas─▒ld─▒─č─▒nda puflayarak i├žerisindeki tozla┼čm─▒┼č ├Âzleri d─▒┼čar─▒ p├╝sk├╝rt├╝r.

4-5 cm ├žap─▒nda, ├╝zerine bas─▒nca puf diye bir spor bulutu ├ž─▒karan mantar. Puf mantar─▒ da denir. Gen├ž olanlar─▒ yenilebilir, zehirli de─čildir fakat tad─▒ pek lezzetli de─čildir. Lycoperdon perlatum`a da bovista plumbea`ya da bu isim verilir. Sonbaharda da ilkbaharda da, her t├╝rl├╝ orman ve ├žay─▒rda g├Ârebilirsiniz.

Fiziki G├Âr├╝n├╝m
Geni┼čten inceye do─čru giden yuvarlak dolgun g├Âvdesiyle bilinir. D─▒┼č k─▒sm─▒ beyazd─▒r ve tepesinde ├╝zerlerinde dikenimsi ├ž─▒k─▒nt─▒lar─▒ olan, k├╝├ž├╝k bir kapak bulunur.

Olgunla┼čma d├Ânemlerinde kahverengine d├Ân├╝┼č├╝rler ve tepesindeki kapak, ya─čmur damlalar─▒, dokunma, d├╝┼čen palamutlar gibi etkenlerle patlayarak a├ž─▒l─▒r ve sporlar ├ževreye sa├ž─▒l─▒r.

Antik ├ža─člardan beri varl─▒─č─▒ bilinen mantarlara insanlar─▒n ilgisi g├╝n├╝m├╝zde de devam etmektedir. Eski ├çin, M─▒s─▒r, Roma ve Yunan uygarl─▒klar─▒nda mantarlar─▒n gerek besin olarak gerekse ila├ž yap─▒m─▒nda kullan─▒ld─▒klar─▒ bilinmektedir. Aztek ve Maya’lar─▒n g├╝n├╝m├╝ze kadar ula┼čan eserlerinde mantar fig├╝rlerine olduk├ža s─▒k rastlanmaktad─▒r. Amerikan yerlilerinin zehirli bir t├╝r olan Amanita muscaria Pers dini ayinlerinde keyif verici olarak kullanmalar─▒ olduk├ža ┼ča┼č─▒rt─▒c─▒d─▒r. ─░ngiliz arkeoloji kay─▒tlar─▒na g├Âre puf mantarlar─▒ ile kav mantar─▒n─▒n yakla┼č─▒k 2000 y─▒l ├Ânce kanamalar─▒ durdurmak amac─▒ ile kullan─▒ld─▒─č─▒ anla┼č─▒lmaktad─▒r. Eskiden sadece do─čadan toplan─▒p t├╝ketilen mantarlar, ilk defa 16. y├╝zy─▒lda Fransa’da k├╝lt├╝re al─▒nm─▒┼čt─▒r. Daha sonra bu alanda yap─▒lan ├žal─▒┼čmalar geli┼čerek devam etmi┼č ve g├╝n├╝m├╝zde ├Âzellikle geli┼čmi┼č ├╝lkelerde ├Ânemli bir sanayi kolu haline gelmi┼čtir. T├╝rkiye’de k├╝lt├╝r mantar─▒ ├╝retimi ile ilgili ilk ├žal─▒┼čmalar 1960?lar─▒n ilk y─▒llar─▒nda ba┼člam─▒┼č, daha sonraki y─▒llarda mantar t├╝ketim al─▒┼čkanl─▒─č─▒n─▒n artmas─▒yla mantar yeti┼čtiricilerinin say─▒s─▒ da artm─▒┼čt─▒r. Bu nedenle g─▒da ihtiyac─▒n─▒n kar┼č─▒lanmas─▒ ve ekonomik olmas─▒ sebebiyle k├╝lt├╝r mantar─▒ yeti┼čtiricili─či d├╝nyada oldu─ču gibi ├╝lkemizde de h─▒zla artmaktad─▒r.

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Makromantarlar di─čer ├Âzelliklerinin yan─▒nda ├žok uzun zamandan beri insanlar taraf─▒ndan kullan─▒lan do─čal kaynaklardan biridir. Tarih boyunca bir├žok hastal─▒─č─▒n tedavisinde mantarlardan haz─▒rlanm─▒┼č ila├žlar kullan─▒lm─▒┼čt─▒r. G├╝n├╝m├╝zde makroskobik mantarlar─▒n bir├žok konuda t─▒bbi etkiye sahip olduklar─▒ bilinmektedir. Makromantarlar antibiyotik, antibakteriyal, antifungal, antiviral, antiprotozoal etkilerinin yan─▒ s─▒ra ba─č─▒┼č─▒kl─▒k sistemi d├╝zenleyici, karaci─čer koruyucu, kollesterol ├Ânleyici, diyabet ├Ânleyici etki g├Âsterirler.


Mushroom Captured Puffing Smoke Cloud

Puffballs are fungi, so named because clouds of brown dust-like spores are emitted when the mature fruitbody bursts or is impacted. Puffballs are in the division Basidiomycota and encompass several genera, including Calvatia, Calbovista and Lycoperdon. True puffballs do not have a visible stalk or stem. The puffballs were previously treated as a taxonomic group called the Gasteromycetes or Gasteromycetidae, but they are now known to be a polyphyletic assemblage.

The distinguishing feature of all puffballs is that they do not have an open cap with spore-bearing gills. Instead, spores are produced internally, in a spheroidal fruitbody called a gasterothecium (gasteroid (‘stomach-like’) basidiocarp). As the spores mature, they form a mass called a gleba in the centre of the fruitbody that is often of a distinctive color and texture. The basidiocarp remains closed until after the spores have been released from the basidia. Eventually, it develops an aperture, or dries, becomes brittle, and splits, and the spores escape. The spores of puffballs are statismospores rather than ballistospores, meaning they are not forcibly extruded from the basidium. Puffballs and similar forms are thought to have evolved convergently (that is, in numerous independent events) from Hymenomycetes by gasteromycetation, through secotioid stages. Thus, ‘Gasteromycetes’ and ‘Gasteromycetidae’ are now considered to be descriptive, morphological terms (more properly gasteroid or gasteromycetes, to avoid taxonomic implications) but not valid cladistic terms.

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Stalked puffballs do have a stalk that supports the gleba. None of the stalked puffballs are edible as they are tough and woody mushrooms. The Hymenogastrales and Enteridium lycoperdon, a slime mold, are the false puffballs. A gleba which is powdery on maturity is a feature of true puffballs, stalked puffballs and earthstars. False puffballs are hard like rock or brittle. All false puffballs are inedible, as they are tough and bitter to taste. The genus Scleroderma, which has a young purple gleba, should also be avoided.

Puffballs were traditionally used in Tibet for making ink by burning them, grinding the ash, then putting them in water and adding glue liquid and “a nye shing ma decoction”, which, when pressed for a long time, made a black dark substance that was used as ink. The Native Americans likewise burned the common puffball as a primitive bee smoker to anesthetize honey bees as a means to safely procure honey; the practice later inspired experimental medicinal application of the puffball smoke as a surgical general anesthetic in 1853.

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